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The chemical equation for photosynthesis is:

This process is anaerobic, not requiring the presence of molecular oxygen.

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: The balanced equation for this reaction can bewritten as follows.

The assumption that the final balanced chemical equation contains only one molecule or formula unit of the most complex substance is not always valid, but it is a good place to start. Consider, for example, a similar reaction, the combustion of isooctane (C8H18). Because the combustion of any hydrocarbon with oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water, the unbalanced chemical equation is as follows:

Plants cells contain a number of structures that are involved in the process of photosynthesis:

A balanced chemical equation gives the identity of the reactants and the products as well as the accurate number of molecules or moles of each that are consumed or produced. is a collective term for the quantitative relationships between the masses, the numbers of moles, and the numbers of particles (atoms, molecules, and ions) of the reactants and the products in a balanced chemical equation. A is the amount of product or reactant specified by the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation. In , for example, you learned how to express the stoichiometry of the reaction for the ammonium dichromate volcano in terms of the atoms, ions, or molecules involved and the numbers of moles, grams, and formula units of each (recognizing, for instance, that 1 mol of ammonium dichromate produces 4 mol of water). This section describes how to use the stoichiometry of a reaction to answer questions like the following: How much oxygen is needed to ensure complete combustion of a given amount of isooctane? (This information is crucial to the design of nonpolluting and efficient automobile engines.) How many grams of pure gold can be obtained from a ton of low-grade gold ore? (The answer determines whether the ore deposit is worth mining.) If an industrial plant must produce a certain number of tons of sulfuric acid per week, how much elemental sulfur must arrive by rail each week?

Be able to write the overall equation forCellular respiration.

Diagram of a plant cell involved in production of glucose from photosynthesis

We now have a balanced chemical equation, and we know thenumber of in the sample. As a step towardthe goal of the problem we might calculate the number of consumed in the reaction. The equation for thisreaction suggests that 12 moles of O2 are consumed forevery mole of sugar in this reaction. We can therefore calculatethe number of moles of oxygen needed to burn 0.02921 moles ofsugar as follows.

The compounds 1-butene and 2-butene have different physical and chemical properties, even thoughthey have the same molecular formula - C4H8. Different molecules with the same molecular formula are calledisomers. Isomers are common in organic chemistry and contribute to its complexity.

B Follow the steps for balancing a chemical equation.

Chloroplasts - containing chlorophyll and enzymes needed for reactions in photosynthesis.

To illustrate this procedure, let’s return to the combustion of glucose. We saw earlier that glucose reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water:

When we carry out a reaction in either an industrial setting or a laboratory, it is easier to work with masses of substances than with the numbers of molecules or moles. The general method for converting from the mass of any reactant or product to the mass of any other reactant or product using a balanced chemical equation is outlined in and described in the following text.

A number of clues show that a chemical reaction has taken place, for example:
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  • Write a balanced chemical equation for each reaction.

    Nucleus - containing DNA carrying the genetic code for enzymes and other proteins used in photosynthesis

  • A Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

    Write a balanced equation for the reaction that occurs when ammonia burns in air to form nitrogen oxide and water.

  • A Balance the chemical equation for the reaction.

    Draw a diagram showing the process of cellular respiration in a cell (identify locations & label all parts).

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The balanced chemical equation for this reaction is

As shown in , applying a small amount of heat to a pile of orange ammonium dichromate powder results in a vigorous reaction known as the ammonium dichromate volcano. Heat, light, and gas are produced as a large pile of fluffy green chromium(III) oxide forms. We can describe this reaction with a , an expression that gives the identities and quantities of the substances in a chemical reaction. Chemical formulas and other symbols are used to indicate the starting material(s), or , which by convention are written on the left side of the equation, and the final compound(s), or , which are written on the right. An arrow points from the reactant to the products:

Asked for: classification of chemical reaction

A Assume 100 g of caffeine. From the percentages given, use the procedure given in Example 6 to calculate the empirical formula of caffeine.

The Chemical Equation of Photosynthesis

The starting material (left) is solid ammonium dichromate. A chemical reaction (right) transforms it to solid chromium(III) oxide, depicted showing a portion of its chained structure, nitrogen gas, and water vapor. (In addition, energy in the form of heat and light is released.) During the reaction, the distribution of atoms changes, but the number of atoms of each element does not change. Because the numbers of each type of atom are the same in the reactants and the products, the chemical equation is balanced.

Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation

In addition to providing qualitative information about the identities and physical states of the reactants and products, a balanced chemical equation provides quantitative information. Specifically, it tells the relative amounts of reactants and products consumed or produced in a reaction. The number of atoms, molecules, or formula units of a reactant or a product in a balanced chemical equation is the of that species (e.g., the 4 preceding H2O in ). When no coefficient is written in front of a species, the coefficient is assumed to be 1. As illustrated in , the coefficients allow us to interpret in any of the following ways:

The Balanced Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis?

Calculate the molecular formula of caffeine, a compound found in coffee, tea, and cola drinks that has a marked stimulatory effect on mammals. The chemical analysis of caffeine shows that it contains 49.18% carbon, 5.39% hydrogen, 28.65% nitrogen, and 16.68% oxygen by mass, and its experimentally determined molar mass is 196 g/mol.

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